What is Angiography?
Peripheral angiography is a medical imaging test to diagnose problems with blood vessels in the limbs of the circulatory system, such as the legs, arms, and head. This test is especially used to detect serious conditions such as narrowing or blockage of blood vessels.
Peripheral angiography is done by injecting a contrast agent. Contrast, when injected into a vein, makes the veins appear more clearly on X-rays. These images help doctors identify the internal structure of blood vessels and where the blockage or narrowing is.
Peripheral angiography is a procedure usually performed in hospital and usually requires fasting the day before. During the procedure, the patient is given local anesthesia and a catheter is placed, usually in the groin or arm area. The catheter is used to inject contrast material and images taken by the x-ray machine are instantly projected onto the screen.
Peripheral angiography can be used to diagnose many different conditions. These conditions include arterial occlusion, weakened blood flow in the leg or arm area, vascular diseases such as venous insufficiency and aneurysm.
Peripheral angiography is usually completed within a few hours and the patient is allowed to return to normal activities. However, after the procedure, the patient may feel pain and discomfort due to the local anesthesia used during the procedure. Therefore, rest is recommended for a few days after the procedure.
Peripheral angiography is a very effective method in the diagnosis of vascular diseases. However, like any medical procedure, peripheral angiography carries risks. These risks include infection, bleeding and, in rare cases, allergic reactions. Therefore, peripheral angiography should only be performed when recommended by a doctor.
In conclusion, peripheral angiography is an effective medical imaging modality for diagnosing narrowing, occlusion and other problems in blood vessels. However, like any medical procedure, it has risks and should only be done when recommended by a doctor.
How is it done?
The aniography procedure is performed by placing a catheter (thin tube) to deliver contrast material to the initial part of the vein or veins to be examined, according to the flow direction. The catheter is often placed in the groin area, rarely through the veins in the arm or armpit area. To insert the catheter, the entry site is sterilized (cleaning from germs), covered with sterile dressings so that the entrance is exposed. On the access vein, the skin and subcutaneous area are anesthetized with local anesthesia, a needle is inserted into the vein, a wire called a guide is inserted through this needle, and the catheter is advanced to the targeted vein over this wire. Contrast material is injected through the catheter and a film is taken of the vessels. These contrast agents may cause some side effects, these effects are listed below in the risks and complications of the angiography procedure. By answering the questions below, you will enable us to decide whether the contrast agent is applicable to you.
- Have you ever had an asthma attack? ....... Yes No
- Do you have a drug or food allergy (especially iodine and seafood)? Yes No
- Have you been given a contrast agent before? ……………… Yes No
- Have you had a contrast agent reaction before?................... Yes No
- Are you pregnant or breastfeeding? …………………………. Yes No
- Have you ever been treated for heart or kidney disease? Yes No
- Are you being treated for diabetes?.......................... Yes No
- Do you have multiple myeloma, liver failure, sickle cell anemia, hepatitis (jaundice), Graves' disease or hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland), pheochromocytoma (adrenal gland disease), HIV/AIDS? .......................... Yes No
Risks and Complications of Angiography Procedure
Depending on your age and current health condition, the following risks and undesirable conditions may occur during the procedure.
1- Contrast substance reactions:
a) Anaphylactoid reaction: it is a serious allergy-like reaction, it can lead to death.
b) Spasm and edema in the respiratory tract: it causes respiratory distress.
c) Mild allergic reactions: sneezing, tearing, rash on the body, urticaria (hives).
d) Feeling of warmth at the injection site, pain.
e) nausea, vomiting.
f) renal failure. Most failure is temporary. Permanent renal failure and treatment may be required in a very small proportion of patients.
g) heart rhythm disorders, low blood pressure
h) epilepsy (episodic seizure).